administering a little shock
An electromyogram (EMG) measures the electrical activity of muscles when they’re at rest and when they’re being used. Nerve conduction studies measure how well and how fast the nerves can send electrical signals.Once upon a time I worked in health care. Tests like these are hard for those who administer them. People get into health care to make people feel better. So studies that are unpleasant for the patient are not much fun to administer. In this case the test involves (from the patient’s point of view) electrodes and needles. The docs were kind, efficient, didn’t hurt for long. The idea of it hurt.

anisota senatoria

yellowstriped oakworms in situ
University of Florida has an excellent write-up about these critters.
q palustis w/ egg cluster
They tend to lay egg masses on the lower leaves. So if you were able to inspect a few thousand leaves
3 versions of same thing
Hoping the Charlottesville downtown mall isn’t beset by these. They particularly like q. phellos.
Differences between instars can often be seen in altered body proportions, colors, patterns, or changes in the number of body segments. —Wikipedia